Kateter

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Kateter

The venous catheter is a medical device widely used in the hospital world. Whether peripheral or central, it allows intravenous treatments to be administered and blood samples to be taken.

What is a catheter?

A catheter, or KT in medical jargon, is a medical device in the form of a thin, flexible tube. Introduced into a venous route, it allows intravenous treatment to be administered and blood to be taken for analyzes, thus avoiding frequent injections.

There are two main types of catheter:

The peripheral venous catheter (CVP)

It allows the installation of a peripheral venous route (VVP). It is introduced into a superficial vein of a limb, more rarely of the cranium of the cranium. There are different types of catheter, different gauge, length and flow, easily identified by color codes to avoid any errors. The practitioner (nurse or doctor) chooses the catheter according to the patient, the implantation site and the use (in emergency for a blood transfusion, in current infusion, in children, etc.).

The central venous catheter (CVC)

Also called the central venous line or central line, it is a heavier device. It is implanted in a large vein in the thorax or neck and then leads to the superior vena cava. The central venous catheter can also be inserted via peripheral vision (CCIP): it is then inserted into a large vein and then slipped through this vein to the upper part of the right atrium of the heart. Different CVCs exist: the picc-line placed in a deep vein of the arm, the tunneled central catheter, the implantable chamber catheter (device allowing a permanent central venous route for long-term ambulatory injectable treatments such as chemotherapy).

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How is the catheter placed?

The insertion of a peripheral venous catheter is done in a hospital room or in the emergency room, by the nursing staff or the doctor. A topical anesthetic can be administered locally, on medical prescription, at least 1 hour before the procedure. After disinfecting his hands and performing skin antisepsis, the practitioner places a garot, introduces the catheter into the vein, gradually withdraws the mandrel (the device comprising the needle) while advancing the catheter in the vein, withdraws the garot then connects the infusion line. A sterile semi-permeable transparent dressing is placed over the insertion site.

The installation of a central venous catheter is done under general anesthesia, in the operating room. The installation of a central venous catheter by peripheral route is also done in the operating room, but under local anesthesia.

When to insert a catheter

A key technique in a hospital environment, the placement of a catheter allows:

  • administer medication intravenously;
  • administer chemotherapy;
  • administer intravenous fluids and / or parenteral nutrition (nutrients);
  • to take a blood sample.

The catheter is therefore used in a large number of situations: in the emergency room for a blood transfusion, in the event of infection for an antibiotic treatment, in the event of dehydration, in the treatment of cancer by chemotherapy, during childbirth (for administration oxytocin), etc.

Rizici

The main risk is the risk of infection, which is why strict aspestial conditions must be observed when placing the catheter. Once inserted, the catheter is closely monitored to detect any sign of infection as quickly as possible.

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