Medicinski tretmani za povišen krvni pritisak

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Medicinski tretmani za povišen krvni pritisak

There is no treatment that can permanently cure thehipertenzija. The goal of treatment is to artificially lower blood pressure to prevent possible oštećenja organa (heart, brain, kidneys, eyes). When these organs are already affected, treating high blood pressure becomes even more important. In people with diabetes, treatment goals are higher because the risk of complications is increased.

Medical treatments for high blood pressure: understand everything in 2 min

U slučaju da'blaga hipertenzija, adopting a healthier lifestyle may be enough to normalize your blood pressure.

U slučaju da'moderate or advanced hypertension, the adaptation of lifestyle remains essential; it will reduce the consumption of drugs. In all cases, a globalni pristup has an even greater effect on blood pressure than taking medication alone.

farmaceutske proizvode

Nekoliko vrsta farmaceutske proizvode, obtained by prescription, can provide adequate control of high blood pressure. The majority of patients need 2 or more medications to reach blood pressure targets. Here are the most commonly used.

  • diuretici. They promote the elimination of excess water and salt through urine. There are several types, which have different modes of action.
  • Beta-blokatori. They reduce the heart rate and the force of blood ejection from the heart.
  • Blokatori kalcijumovih kanala. They cause the arteries to dilate and reduce cardiac stress.
  • Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. They also have a dilating effect on the arteries, by countering the production of a hormone (angiotensin).
  • Angiotensin receptor blockers (also called sartans). Like the previous class of drugs, they prevent angiotensin from making blood vessels constrict, but by a different mechanism of action.
  • If treatment with a combination of more than one of these drugs is unsuccessful, your doctor may prescribe other drugs, such as alpha blockers, alpha-beta blockers, vasodilators, and centrally acting agents.

Upozorenje. neki lijekovi bez recepta, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (eg ibuprofen), may increase blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. Always seek advice from your doctor or pharmacist before taking any medication.

 

hrana

For more practical advice, consult our special diet High blood pressure.

dijeta

It is possible to lower your blood pressure by applying the following tips:

  • Consume a lot of voce i povrce.
  • Limit your salt intake : studies indicate that 30% of hypertensive people (especially those who react easily to sodium) can control their blood pressure by reducing their salt intake11. If necessary, to cook or season, replace table salt, sea salt or fleur de sel with potassium salt.
  • Moderate your alcohol and caffeine consumption (a maximum of 4 cups of coffee per day).
  • Povećajte unos omega-3 of marine origin, especially found in mackerel, salmon, trout, herring and cod.
  • Eat garlic: although its virtues are not rigorously proven, several doctors recommend garlic for its vasodilator properties (see Complementary approaches).

DASH dijeta

In the United States, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) advocates DASH dijeta (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension). This diet is specially designed to treat high blood pressure. It is related to the Mediterranean diet. Research has shown its effectiveness and, in the case of mild high blood pressure, it can even replace the usual medications. Regular monitoring of this diet reduces systolic pressure from 8 mmHg to 14 mmHg, and diastolic pressure from 2 mmHg to 5,5 mmHg9.

In this diet, the emphasis is on voce i povrce, u integralne žitarice, u orasi, riba perad i nemasna mliječna hrana. The consumption of red meats, sugar, fat (and more particularly saturated fat) and salt is reduced.2.

                                 THE 2 kcal DASH DIET

 

Recommended servings per day

Examples of servings

Whole grain cereal foods

 

7 do 8

– 1 slice of whole grain bread

– 125 ml or 1/2 cup of dry cereal rich in fiber

 

– 125 ml or 1/2 cup of brown rice, pasta rich in dietary fiber or whole grains (barley, quinoa, etc.)

povrće

4 do 5

– 250 ml of lettuce or other leafy trees

– 125 ml or 1/2 cup of vegetables

– 180 ml or 3/4 cup vegetable juice

voće

4 do 5

– 1 medium fruit

– 125 ml or 1/2 cup of fresh, frozen or canned fruit

– 180 ml or 3/4 cup of fruit juice

– 60 ml or 1/4 cup of dried fruit

Mliječna hrana sa smanjenom masnoćom

2 do 3

– 250 ml or 1 cup of skimmed or 1% milk

– 180 ml or 3/4 cup of skimmed yogurt

– 50 g or 1 1/2 ounces of partially skimmed or skimmed cheese

Meat, poultry and fish

2 ili manje

– 90 g or 3 ounces of lean meats, poultry, fish or seafood

mast

2 do 3

– 5 ml or 1 tbsp. oil or margarine

– 5 ml or 1 tbsp. regular mayonnaise

– 15 ml or 1 tbsp. reduced fat mayonnaise

– 15 ml or 1 tbsp. regular vinaigrette

– 30 ml or 2 tbsp. low-calorie vinaigrette

Legumes, nuts and seeds

4 do 5 sedmično

– 125 ml or 1/2 cup cooked legumes

– 80 ml or 1/3 cup of walnuts

– 30 ml or 2 tbsp. XNUMX tbsp sunflower seeds

Snacks and sweets

5 tjedno

– 1 medium fruit

– 250 ml or 1 cup of fruit yogurt

– 125 ml or ½ cup of frozen yogurt

– 200 ml or 3/4 cup pretzels

– 125 ml or ½ cup of fruit gelatin

– 15 ml or 1 tbsp. XNUMX tbsp maple syrup, sugar or jam

– 3 hard candies

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 Source: DASH study

 

Fizička vežba

The cardiovascular type exercises (brisk walking, running, cycling, dancing, swimming) are recommended. We suggest doing at least 20 minuta dnevno, but any physical exercise, even less intense, is beneficial. In the long term, regular physical exercise can reduce systolic pressure from 4 mmHg to 9 mmHg, even without weight loss9.

Kako god, razboritost with exercises that require you to lift weights (at the gym, for example). They become contraindicated when blood pressure is high.

In any case, it is best to seek the advice of your doctor before starting an exercise program. Consult our file Being active: the new way of life! See also our Fitness series.

Gubitak težine

Ako imate prekomjerna težina, losing weight is the most effective way to reduce blood pressure. On average, losing 2 ½ kilograms (5 pounds) results in a drop in systolic pressure of 5 mmHg and diastolic pressure of 2,5 mmHg.

Anti-stress measures

Le stres,nestrpljenje ineprijateljstvo play an important role in the onset of hypertension. Some experts estimate that stress can cause blood pressure to fluctuate by 10%. Several doctors recommend approaches such as meditation, relaxation, or yoga. Practiced regularly (at least 2 or 3 times a week), these can give good results. People with high blood pressure can expect to reduce their systolic pressure by 10 mmHg and their diastolic pressure by 5 mmHg12Npr.

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Along with these practices, unnecessary hassle will be avoided. It is therefore about learning to reduce stress factors related to lifestyle: better manage your time, determine your priorities, etc.

For more on this, see the Complementary approaches section.

In order to ensure a better follow-up and to help the doctor to adjust the treatment, it is recommended to measure blood pressure once or twice a week using a blood pressure monitor. To do this, you can get a device that will first be checked in a clinic to ensure its accuracy. At each reading, write down the values ​​obtained and report them to your doctor at the next visit. Once the voltage has stabilized, it can be measured less frequently.

 

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