Šta je slepilo?


Šta je slepilo?

Blindness is the loss of visual abilities, partial or total. The early identification of blindness and its rapid management can limit possible complications.

Definition of blindness

Blindness is a vision disorder characterized by visual impairment. This deficiency is more or less substantial. It can be related to the total loss of visual abilities.

Currently, nearly 285 million people in the world have a visual impairment. Of these, 39 million are blind and 246 million suffer from reduced visual abilities.

Anyone of any age can be affected by the development of blindness. Individuals in low-income countries, however, are more affected by this phenomenon.

Older people are more prone to develop such a pathology. In fact, nearly 65% ​​of people who testify to a more or less severe blindness are over 50 years old. Blindness identified and diagnosed before the age of 15 requires rapid and early management in order to limit any worsening of the disease.

The visually impaired person is identifiable, preventable and curable. According to the International Classification of Diseases, 4 categories can define visual function:

  • Normal vision without any impairment
  • Moderate visual impairment
  • More severe visual impairment
  • Blindness, or even total loss of vision.

Blindness then resumes, all visual impairments, from the least important to the most serious.

Causes of blindness

Several causes can be attributed to the development of blindness. Among those :

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  • vision impairment, such as myopia, hypertropemia, astigmacy, etc.
  • cataract abnormalities, which have not been the subject of surgery.
  • the development of glaucoma (pathology of the eyeball).

Course and possible complications of blindness

The level of visual impairment may be greater or lesser, depending on the patient. Quick and early treatment helps limit complications and worsening impairments.

The progressive loss of vision, up to total loss is possible and amplified in the context of non-treatment.

Symptoms of blindness

In the context of complete blindness, it will be the total loss of visual abilities.

Partial blindness can lead to the development of the following clinical signs and symptoms:

  • blurry visions
  • difficulty identifying shapes
  • reduced visual abilities in dark surroundings
  • reduced vision at night
  • povećana osetljivost na svetlost

Risk factors for blindness

Among the risk factors for blindness, we can cite:

  • the presence of an underlying eye pathology, particularly glaucoma
  • diabetes and cerebral vascular accident (stroke)
  • operacija oka
  • exposure to foods toxic to the eyes

Premature birth also presents an increased risk of blindness for the child.

How to treat blindness?

The management of blindness includes the prescription of glasses and / or contact lenses. Surgery can also be a solution, for the most important cases.

Drug treatment can also be part of this management of blindness.


The total loss of vision requires other means of management: reading Braille, the presence of a guide dog, an organization of his daily life accordingly, etc.

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