Šta je holecistitis?

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Šta je holecistitis?

Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. This is caused by the formation of gallstones. It is more common in women, the elderly or people with overweight.

Definition of Cholecystitis

Cholecystitis is a condition of the gallbladder (an organ located below the liver and containing bile). It is an inflammation caused by an obstruction of the gallbladder, by stones.

Each individual can be impacted by cholecystitis. However, some people are more “at risk”. These include: women, the elderly, as well as people with overweight.

This inflammation usually causes severe abdominal pain, accompanied by a feverish state. Ultrasound is often used to confirm the initial clinical diagnosis. Treatment exists in the management of this disease. In the absence of prompt treatment, cholecystitis can progress quickly, and have serious consequences.

Causes of cholecystitis

The liver manufactures bile (organic liquid allowing the digestion of fats). The latter is, during digestion, excreted in the gall bladder. The path of the bile then continues towards the intestines.

The presence of stones (aggregation of crystals) within the gallbladder can then block the expulsion of this bile. Abdominal pain is then the consequence of this blockage.

An obstruction that continues over time gradually leads to inflammation of the gallbladder. This is then acute cholecystitis.

Evolution and possible complications of cholecystitis

Healing of cholecystitis is usually possible after two weeks, with appropriate treatment.

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If the treatment is not taken as soon as possible, however, complications can develop, such as:

  • cholangitis and pancreatitis: infection of the bile duct (cholera) or pancreas. These illnesses cause, in addition to the feverish state and abdominal pain, jaundice (jaundice). Emergency hospitalization is often necessary for such complications.
  • biliary peritonitis: perforation of the wall of the gallbladder, causing inflammation of the peritoneum (membrane covering the abdominal cavity).
  • Chronic cholecystitis: characterized by recurrent nausea, vomiting and requiring removal of the gallbladder.

These complications remain rare, from the point of view where the management is generally rapid and appropriate.

Symptoms of cholecystitis

The general symptoms of cholecystitis are manifested by:

  • hepatic colitis: pain, more or less intense and more or less long, in the pit of the stomach or under the ribs.
  • grozničavo stanje
  • mučnina.

Risk factors for cholecystitis

The main risk factor for cholecystitis is the presence of gallstones.

Other factors may also be associated with an increased risk of the disease: age, female sex, overweight, or even taking certain medications (estrogen, cholesterol medications, etc.).

 

How to diagnose Cholecystitis?

The first phase of the diagnosis of cholecystitis, is based on the identification of characteristic symptoms.

In order to confirm, or not, the disease, additional examinations are necessary:

  • ultrazvuk abdomena
  • endoskopija
  • Magnetska rezonanca (MR)

How to treat cholecystitis?

The management of cholecystitis requires, first of all, drug treatment: analgesics, antispasmodics, or antibiotics (in the context of an additional bacterial infection).

 

In order to obtain complete healing, removal of the gallbladder is often necessary: ​​cholecystectomy. The latter can be performed by laparoscopy or by laparotomy (opening through the abdominal wall).

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